Soft Pretzels

This soft pretzels recipe are a German classic but are an easy homemade version with everyday ingredients, including beer (!), that are just like the real deal you’ll find abroad. Here’s how to make them at home.

Soft pretzels of assorted shapes and sizes on a wooden surface.

If you’ve ever tasted real German soft pretzels, with a deep, dark, burnished skin showered with crunchy salt crystals and a yeasty, chewy middle, then you know what you’re in for here. The shape of these soft pretzels is typical of the historic German region known as Swabia, where the tradition is to shape pretzels with fat “bellies” and thinly tapered, crispy “arms” interlocking in a twisted embrace. [Editor’s Note: The author was generous enough to share several shape variations—and how-tos—with us, which you’ll find beneath the recipe.]–Andrea Slonecker

Why Do Some Pretzel Recipes Call For Lye?

Authentic German soft pretzels traditionally call for the dough to be dipped in a solution of food-grade lye and water before baking. Yeah, lye. It’s actually what gives the pretzels their characteristic “deep, dark, burnished skin,” according to author Andrea Slonecker. We don’t doubt that. Still, call us scaredy-cats, but in the words of Slonecker, we just aren’t up to the challenge. And we’re okay with that. So we’re going to let that little tradition, er lie, seeing as the author, thankfully, gifted us with a comparable solution. “The esteemed food scientist Harold McGee wrote a story for the New York Times in which he explained that the chemical properties of baking soda can be altered, causing it to behave in a similar way to lye, if it is baked in an oven at a low temperature for an hour or so.” That’s her solution. Works for us. You’ll see that we opted for this eminently sensible alternative in our tweaked version of the recipe that follows. And those of us who have experienced German soft pretzels in their native country didn’t feel anything was missing at all. Not even a swipe of whole-grain mustard, although of course a little mustard never hurt matters.

Soft Pretzels

  • Quick Glance
  • (3)
  • 1 H, 15 M
  • 10 H
  • Makes 8
5/5 - 3 reviews
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To prepare the best soft pretzels, you’ll need to begin a day, or at least 8 hours, in advance and let the dough slowly rise in the refrigerator. (While we offer an option for making quick pretzels, we highly recommend the overnight method because the dough’s flavor really develops during the slow fermentation, becoming nuanced with a yeasty tang that’s worth every moment of anticipation.) The day before you want to bake the pretzels, sprinkle the yeast over the warm water in the bowl of a stand mixer or in a large bowl. Add the barley malt syrup or brown sugar and stir until it’s dissolved. Set aside until the yeast is foamy, 5 to 7 minutes.

Stir in the flour, beer, butter, and salt and continue stirring until a shaggy mass forms. Attach the bowl and the dough hook to the stand mixer and begin kneading on medium-low speed. After about 1 minute the dough will form a smooth ball that’s quite firm and maybe slightly tacky but not sticky. (If the dough is sticky, add a little more flour, about 1 tablespoon at a time, and knead it in until the dough is smooth. Conversely, if the dough is too dry to come together, add more warm water, 1 teaspoon at a time.)

Continue kneading on medium-low speed until the dough is elastic, 5 to 7 minutes. Alternatively, turn the shaggy dough out onto an unfloured work surface and knead it by hand.

Lightly butter a bowl that will be large enough to contain the dough after it has doubled in size. Transfer the dough to the bowl.

For slow-rise pretzels, cover the bowl tightly with plastic wrap and place the dough in the refrigerator to rise for at least 8 hours and, for optimal flavor, up to 24 hours.

For quick pretzels, set the bowl aside at room temperature (in a warmish spot) and let the dough rise until doubled in size, about 1 1/2 hours.

Meanwhile, preheat the oven to 250°F (120°C). For one batch soft pretzels, spread 1/4 cup baking soda on an aluminum pie pan or a small rimmed baking sheet covered with aluminum foil. Bake the baking soda for 1 hour. The baking soda will lose weight as it bakes but maintain about the same volume, so you should end up with about 1/4 cup baked baking soda.

Let the baking soda cool completely and then keep it in an airtight container at room temperature until you are ready to make soft pretzels. (If you see more than one batch in your future, consider baking a whole box of baking soda in one shot, since it keeps indefinitely. Sift baked baking soda before using, as it cakes after prolonged storage.)

Line two 12-by-17-inch rimmed baking sheets with parchment paper. Turn the dough out onto an unfloured work surface and firmly press it down to deflate.

To form the classic pretzel shape, cut the dough into 8 equal portions. Work with 1 piece of dough at a time and keep the rest covered with a damp, clean kitchen towel. Pat a piece of dough down with your fingertips to form a rough rectangle about 3 1/2 by 5 1/2 inches. Beginning on a long side, roll the dough up tightly, forming it into a little loaf. Pinch the seam together. Shape the dough into a rope by rolling it against the work surface with your palms and applying mild pressure, working from the center of the dough out to the ends. (If you need more friction, spray the counter with a little water from a squirt bottle or drizzle a few drops of water and spread it with your hand.) Once you can feel that the dough rope doesn’t want to stretch any farther (usually when it is between 12 and 16 inches long), set it aside to rest and begin shaping another piece in the same manner. Repeat with the remaining pieces of dough.

Return to the first dough rope and continue rolling it out to a length of 24 to 28 inches, leaving the center about 1 inch in diameter and tapering the ends by applying a little more pressure as you work your way out. Position the dough rope into a U shape, with the ends pointing away from you. Holding an end in each hand, cross the ends about 3 inches from the tips and then cross them again. Fold the ends down and press them into the U at about 4 and 8 o’clock, allowing about 1/4 inch of the ends to overhang. Place the pretzel on one of the prepared baking sheets and cover it with a damp towel. Repeat with the remaining dough, spacing them on the baking sheets at least 1 inch apart and covering them with a damp towel.

Let the covered dough to rise at warm room temperature until it’s increased in size by about half, 20 to 30 minutes. (At this point the soft pretzels can be covered tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerated for up to 8 hours.)

At least 20 minutes before baking, position one rack in the upper third and another rack in the lower third of the oven and preheat it to 500°F (260°C).

Select a large stainless-steel pot and add about 8 cups water. Be sure to choose a pot that’s at least a finger’s length wider than the diameter of the soft pretzels and tall enough so that the water comes up no more than 2 inches from the rim. (Avoid other metal surfaces, such as aluminum and copper, and nonstick surfaces, which may react with the baked baking soda.) Add the baked baking soda and bring the liquid to a simmer over medium-high heat.

Once the baking soda dissolves, reduce the heat to medium, and maintain a gentle simmer. Use a large skimmer to gently dip the pretzels, 1 or 2 at a time, in the baked baking soda solution. Leave them in the solution for about 20 seconds, carefully turning them once after 10 seconds. Remove the pretzels from the liquid, drain, and return them to the baking sheets, spacing them at least 1 inch apart. If the ends of the soft pretzels come detached, simply reattach them. Repeat with the remaining soft pretzels.

Using a sharp paring knife or new razor blade, cut a slit about 1/4 inch deep in the thickest part of each soft pretzel (you’ll find that at the bottom of the U) to allow steam to escape as the soft pretzels bake.

In a small bowl, lightly beat the egg yolk with the cold water. Brush the tops of the soft pretzels lightly with the egg wash to give them a glossy finish. Top them as you choose, if desired. (If you plan to enjoy some of the pretzels later and not hot out of the oven, don’t salt them before baking. Just salt the ones you plan to eat the same day. When stored in an airtight container or wrapped in plastic—a necessity to keep them from drying out—the trapped humidity will dissolve the salt crystals on the surface of the crust. You’ll end up with droplets of water and swollen, soggy spots where the salt once was.)

Bake the soft pretzels until deep mahogany in color, 8 to 12 minutes, rotating the pan from front to back and top to bottom halfway through the baking time.

Transfer the soft pretzels to a wire rack to cool for 10 minutes before serving. The soft pretzels are best enjoyed the day they’re made, ideally warm from the oven or within an hour of being baked. Soft pretzels keep at room temperature, without being wrapped up or enclosed in a container, for about 12 hours. Store your soft pretzels in an airtight container or wrap each one tightly in plastic wrap, and keep them at room temperature for up to 2 days. Or place the soft pretzels, tightly wrapped in plastic, in a resealable plastic freezer bag, and freeze for up to 1 month. Reheat the pretzels in a 350°F (180°C) oven for about 5 minutes, or for 10 to 12 minutes if frozen. Originally published September 26, 2013.

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    Pretzel Variations

    • New York-Style Soft Pretzels
    • Pretzels sold by New York City street vendors are larger and the arms are not tapered to thin strands of dough like pretzels in the traditional Swabian shape, but rather are kept plump. To achieve this, follow the instructions for shaping the pretzels in the master recipe, making the following changes: Divide the dough into six equal portions. Shape each portion of dough into a 36-inch rope, applying even pressure as you roll from the center of the dough to the ends to avoid tapering the ends. Proceed as instructed in the recipe. Makes 6.

    • Pretzel Bites
    • These are the perfect snack when you’re watching a movie. To create bite-size pretzels, make the following changes: Reduce the ingredients to make a half batch of the dough, using the following amounts: 1 1/2 teaspoons yeast, 1/4 cup warm water, 1 1/2 teaspoons barley malt syrup or firmly packed dark brown sugar, 1 1/2 cups plus 2 tablespoons (210 grams) unbleached bread flour, 1/4 cup cold, pilsner-style beer, 1 tablespoon unsalted butter (cubed, at room temperature), and 1 teaspoon fine sea salt. Divide the dough into 8 equal portions. Shape each portion of dough into a 12-inch rope, applying even pressure as you roll from the center of the dough to the ends to avoid tapering the ends. Cut the ropes into 1-inch pieces. Proceed as instructed in the recipe, but dip the pretzel bites in batches of at least 8 to 10 (or more if your pot is large enough). Reduce the baking time to 6 to 9 minutes. Makes 8 dozen or so.

    • Pretzel Knots
    • Pretzel knots are great for topping with cheese or streusel. Follow the instructions for shaping the pretzels through Step 4, making the following changes: Divide the dough into 12 equal portions. Shape each piece of dough into a 12-inch rope, tapering the ends slightly as you roll from the center of the dough to the ends. Loop the dough into a loose knot without tugging or stretching. There is no need to slash the dough before baking. Proceed as instructed in the recipe. Makes 12.

    • Pretzel Rolls
    • Pretzel dough can be fashioned into dinner rolls for a dazzling addition to your breadbasket or a clever bun for sliders or sandwiches. Follow the instructions for shaping the pretzels, making the following changes: Divide the dough into 12 equal portions. Working with one portion at a time, pat the dough down with your fingertips to form a 4-inch circle. Lightly dust the work surface and dough with flour if it’s sticky. Fold over the edges of the circle so that they meet in the middle. Pinch the seams together and turn the roll over so that the seam side is down. Cup your hand over the dough ball and roll it rapidly against the work surface to smooth out the seams and create a well-shaped sphere. Repeat this process with the remaining dough. Use a sharp paring knife or a razor blade to slit a large, deep cross into the top of each roll before baking. Proceed as instructed in the recipe. Makes 12.

    Recipe Testers Reviews

    I’ve made several soft pretzel recipes over the years. I’m ALWAYS a little disappointed. This problem has now been solved. I couldn’t be any more pleased with the results. The pretzels were dark and shiny and I LOVE the use of the beer in the dough—after all, what goes better with pretzels than beer?

    Allowing this dough to ferment overnight gave the pretzels a wonderful deep flavor. I used brown sugar instead of malt. I doubled the batch and made some nice pretzel buns for sandwiches. This is a GREAT recipe.

    I jumped at the chance to make homemade soft pretzels. The recipe is long because it’s packed with details and cues that really help manage the process, but the actual execution is pretty fast and easy. I went with the slow fermentation and I’m glad I did. The pretzels were really tasty.

    The yeast quality matures and mellows into a seasoning, for lack of a better description. I used a generous sprinkling of Maldon flaked sea salt over the top. I also used a large carving board to roll out the dough ropes. The wood texture gives the perfect traction necessary to lengthen the dough without it sticking to the surface.

    I’ve made bretzeln for more than 20 years, but never had a recipe that adds beer to the dough. I had to try it. The pretzels turned out nice with a deep, mahogany color.

    The instructions are very clear and elaborate. I followed them exactly, and mostly they worked very well. The only thing I had to add was 2 more tablespoons water. The dough was just too stiff. I should’ve added probably 1 more tablespoon to make the dough a bit more elastic. I let it rest in the fridge for 24 hours. I used lye (sodium hydroxide), which worked just fine. You have to thin the lye with water. I always use a 3% solution.

    They were just a little bit on the soft side for me; I like them soft and chewy inside, but crisp on the outside. All things considered, it’s a nice recipe and great fun to try out. You’ll never buy pretzels again….

    Many times I regret picking the long recipes to make, yet this was worth it in the end. What was most difficult for me was, well, staying on task (teenager problems) and rolling out the dough to a thin and long strip. I had my mom help me on a few steps. But for the most part I managed to get through it myself.

    I used dark brown sugar instead of barley malt syrup. In terms of the steps of the recipe, first I added the warm water, then the dark brown sugar, and last topped it off with the dry yeast. I enjoyed it; I just wish I would’ve kept them in the oven for a little less time.

    These pretzels are a bit of a project, but the results were worth it. The instructions are really good, and so are the pretzels! The last and only other time I tried to make pretzels, I was a teenager and the pretzels turned out soggy and leaden, and my mother never lets me forget it. In contrast, these pretzels are beautiful: brown and chewy and slightly crunchy on the outside. I used the baking soda method and didn’t have any problems.


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    1. This is THE pretzel recipe!! I’ve tried a few others, but this is by far the best, most flavorful recipe! The slow rise really makes all the difference. We didn’t have a pilsner, so I used the only beer in our fridge, a spiced ale, and it worked well. My family is looking forward the next pretzel adventure, perfecting my technique with this recipe!

    2. This is a fantastic, easy recipe that I will definitely make again. I’ve made soft pretzels a number of times, so I was excited to try this version. One of the first things I noticed was how well the dough came together. As the recipe says, you want it to be slightly tacky, not sticky. I opted for an overnight rise (approximately 16 hours) in the refrigerator, as I find nearly all yeast breads have better flavor with a longer, slower first rise. I also wanted to have more, smaller pretzels (they freeze very well after baking), so after punching down the dough I divided it into 16 portions (by weight, to ensure pretzels of equal size).

      There are a couple differences in this recipe compared to others I’ve tried. One is that you have to shape the balls into rectangles before rolling them into shorter ropes and then longer ropes that you use to form the pretzels. I questioned these steps at the time, but shaping the dough into a rectangle actually made it easier to get the rope started and made the surface smoother. The two-stage rolling gave the dough time to rest, which reduced any springing back when rolling the dough into longer ropes.

      Some other recipes call for lightly oiling the rolling surface, which is somewhat messy and makes it a little more difficult to roll the dough. The tackiness of this dough make it very easy to quickly roll ropes with consistent diameters. Since I was making smaller pretzels, I rolled my initial ropes approximately 7 inches long and then into 16 inch ropes. I also opted for a single rather than a double twist when forming the pretzels. My second rise took about 45 minutes, which is a little longer than called for in the recipe. I suspect this was because my kitchen was a little chilly. After the baking soda solution bath, I briefly drained the pretzels on a wire rack and then placed them on parchment-lined sheet pans. Because of their smaller size, I expected the pretzels to bake significantly faster, but it took about 10 minutes to get the level of browning I wanted.

      If you do plan on freezing any pretzels, definitely salt only the ones you’ll be eating that day, as the salt will dissolve when stored after baking. When reheating the frozen pretzels, brush them liberally with water and then sprinkle on the salt (the water helps it adhere).

      Another option I like is brushing the plain pretzels with a little melted butter and sprinkling cinnamon and sugar on them before baking.

    3. I’ve tried any number of soft pretzel recipes, and while some do turn out OK, none of them has that potent pretzel taste I’m looking for. I’ve tried the baking soda boil, the baked baking soda boil, and now I’ve progressed to the lye dip. It really is nothing to be afraid of, just be cautious and graceful, and wear long rubber gloves just in case. Once I tried both a bs boil and a lye dip, which wasn’t so great tasting a result, but you really do want some kind of boiling to form that outer skin. So plain water boil followed by a lye dip. That ought to work I think.

      I’ve got barley malt syrup on order. I’ve tried using white and brown sugar, but I’ve heard that malt gives a better flavor. And now I’ll try your recipe, which gives me an excuse to go buy a 6 pack of Dab beer! [actually I’ve been thinking of using beer instead of water] And the slow rise should give me the strong yeast flavor I want, without over-proofing the dough. It does use 1/3c less water, and 100g less flour than my standard recipe, so my guess is it will only make about 5 of my 150gm size NY Style pretzels. Can’t wait to try it!!

      Question: what benefit do you get from using high protein bread flour vs regular flour?
      Question: how cold is your fridge?
      Question: have you tried this in a cooler oven, say 425 for 18-22 minutes? What advantage does the 500 oven get you (with the lye dip, deep browning is automatic, no need for Broil temps to make it happen)?

      1. Hi Drew458, I reached out to Larry Noak, one of our super bread bakers, to get his thoughts on your questions. This is what he had to say, “I use high protein bread flour for a more firm, substantial finished product. I will guess that my refrigerator is in the mid 30s. The hot oven in combination with the bread flour will give a better oven spring and a crisper crust. Different flours have different flavors. The pretzel recipe uses white spelt flour that, although expensive, adds the “pretzel flavor” you may be in search of. Experimentation is the joy in home baking! I personally have NEVER had the need for using a lye dip. The pretzel recipe has worked very well for me every single time. I also do use barley malt syrup and I can always find it in the baking aisle at my local Publix. Make certain to refrigerate after opening. One last suggestion, I use this recipe regularly with outstanding results. I have begun playing with toppings such as a combination of sea salt and hard minced garlic or smoked sea salts. Hope this was helpful!”

        1. Thanks! It is true that pretzels made with plain white flour (Pillsbury) can be too fluffy inside. I will look around for some spelt flour; I’ve read recipes that add some rye flour so that should be a bit similar. Yes, experimentation is what it’s all about … which gives me an excuse to make up at least one batch of pretzels every week. :-) And now I can try different kinds of beer in different amounts … wonder if all beer, no water would work? Czech Pilsen or Dortmunder? Ah, let the fun begin anew!

          I’ll keep you posted. Thanks again!

          1. You are most welcome Drew458, please let us know how your experimentations with different beers and flours affect your pretzels.

            1. Round 1: Mixed results. I used a somewhat malty Bavarian heffe weissen beer. One batch was with King Arthur’s bread flour, the other batch was half KA and half whole grain spelt flour. Both got a 20 hour cold rise. I followed your instructions pretty well, although I did start with boiling water to dissolve the malt syrup sludge and melt the butter. Once that cooled to 110 I added the yeast, and when that was foamy I added the salt and beer. Recipe makes a grapefruit sized ball of dough, big enough for 5 NY style pretzels. The next night I rolled them out in 3 stages, letting the dough relax between. I used plain water for the boil, followed by a 30 second lye dip. 10 minutes in the 500 oven and they were done.

              I thought they looked great, smelled great, had just the right amount of skin, a nice airy crumb, and plenty of chew inside, but not leaden. The spelt ones came out a bit more dense, darker inside too, and I like the gentle change in flavor. Letting them rise for a whole day gave them a good yeasty taste. So I thought they were awesome.

              Unfortunately, my better half, she of the sensitive nose and taste, took a bite of each and rejected them both. “Tastes like bread. Like a roll. A really good roll, but a roll. Whatever intangible makes a pretzel taste like a pretzel, isn’t here.”: OTOH, right now she’s on antibiotics, and they can mess with your taste buds.

              I only used a third of each batch; I read somewhere that pizza dough often gets a cold rise that can last a week or more, so I’ll try another run tomorrow and see if a 2 day rise makes things better or not.

              Then it’s on to try a nice sharp Pilsner, like an Czech Urquell or a lighter IPA. It could be that the malty essence of the heffe weissen was the wrong approach, and that the sharp bitter contrast of a hop heavy IPA, IPL, or Pilsner is what’s needed.

              On the third hand, there are recipes that use whole milk instead or water or beer. If I try one of those, I’d leave out the butter; too much fat gives you pastry not bread.

              And … I hate to say it … but it isn’t impossible that the baking soda/washing soda boil methods add some kind of flavor not present in the lye dip. While I’m all for “authentic” I’ve never been to Bavaria, so I wouldn’t know the real deal if you hit me with it. But I know what a commercial pretzel tastes like in this country, and that’s probably the flavor I’m hunting for. Because it’s a big let down to do all this work and get the “tastes like bread” response.

              1. Hi Drew, it sounds like you are on the right track for the perfect pretzel. Keep experimenting and you will find the ideal combo that will please your better half, once she is off antibiotics!

                1. I’ve got an enormous update to make, someday. But I have to admit that I messed up. I was using a really expensive famous name pot to do the boiling in, and it turned out to be aluminum. BAD. Sometimes I would get great results, sometimes bland, sometimes they tasted like tin foil. Once I switched over to a pot stamped “Stainless Steel” things got a lot better.

                  I bought her book, researched a ton of recipes online, studied pH, tried her hot lye dip method, experimented with freezing the dough, steam proofing, yeast sponges, etc. I even broke down and bought a mall pretzel and forced myself to eat it. I think I might almost be an expert at this point. But I might have a few more brands of beer to sample. :-)

                    1. Years later and I’m still making pretzels in a scientific method manner. I’ve tried all kinds of ingredient variations, and performed experiments with the lye water temperature, molarity, and dip time. Variations in baking time and temperature. Add steam or not. I use a quality scale and a graduated cylinder. Click on my name for a link to one of the lye experiments.

                      Here is my final version of everything, for fabulous New York style soft pretzels:

                      7gm SAF instant yeast
                      28gm organic barley malt syrup
                      1tsp white sugar
                      125ml boiling water (about 1/2 cup)
                      36gm unsalted butter (2.5tbs)
                      8gm kosher salt
                      225-250ml crisp European pilsner beer (eg Radeberger)
                      416gm King Arthur high-gluten flour (aka Sir Lancelot)
                      136gm spelt flour (Bob’s Mills brand)

                      In small bowl, add sugar, malt syrup, butter to boiling water, dissolve. Let cool. Add some of the beer. When below 100F sprinkle on yeast. Let sit 10 minutes until foamy. Stir.

                      Whisk flour, spelt, salt together. Add syrup liquid and remaining beer. Combine. Rest 10 min. Knead slowly in stand mixer for 3 minutes, then 4 more minutes at medium speed to get that stretch and slap action going. Transfer dough to greased or buttered bowl or 4qt container. Cover. Let rise 15 minutes then overnight in fridge.

                      Deflate cold dough. Cut into 6 or 8 equal chunks, work chunks into small boules. Make ropes, form pretzels, lay on parchment paper, freeze for 1 hour. If freezing longer, transfer pretzels to 1 gallon ziploc freezer bag.

                      Remove pretzels from freezer, heat oven to 450F, use a baking stone if you have one. Prepare a half molar lye water solution: add 20gm of food grade lye crystals to 1 liter of room temperature water in a 8×8 glass pan. Mix slowly and gently with slotted plastic spatula. Let pretzels thaw 50 min while oven heats and lye water breathes (use stove hood to pull vapors). Dip pretzels one at a time for 20-25 seconds, transfer to cooling rack to drip off for 1-2 minutes. Place pretzels on new parchment paper on baking sheet, top with salt. Bake at 450 for 11 minutes. I use a flat sheet that works as a peel to slide the parchment paper onto the baking stone. Remove from oven, peel them off parchment, let cool a bit and eat. Makes 6 large or 8 medium.

                      Steam doesn’t make much of a difference in my electric oven. Maybe a little bit more chewy texture. So I’d call it an option. Heat up an ovenproof metal pan in the bottom of the oven. Boil a coffee mug of water. When the pretzels go in, toss the mug of water into the pan. Be careful of steam flash!

                      1. Wow, Drew, you have been busy perfecting pretzels! Thanks so much for the update and sage advice.

        1. The fun part of pretzel making is that it’s much more of a science experiment than regular baking. To get that pretzel taste and a rich brown color you need a strong alkaline solution to dip them in. You really can’t do that with baking soda. Washing soda does work, but only up to a point. It’s up to you to decide if that point is sufficient or not.

          Washing soda, aka soda ash, aka sodium carbonate, creates a much more alkaline bath than baking soda, but you still need a fair amount to get the pH up to a somewhat useful point, which I personally consider to be pH of 12. No matter how much washing soda you add to a liter of water, you’ll never get the pH much over 12. At a certain point the flavor will be impacted. Nobody wants a pretzel that tastes like tinfoil. ( don’t use an aluminum, copper, or no-stick pan for dipping. Stick with glass )

          I ran the numbers for you. In a liter of water, this much washing soda gives this pH:
          10gm = 11.7pH
          20gm = 11.85pH
          40gm = 12 pH

          I’d say, make some dough up, put 10gm in a liter of water in a glass baking dish and see how it works and how it tastes after baking. Try different dip times; 15, 30, 60, 90 seconds. Try those at room temperature and at 120F. That’s an 8 pretzel experiment. Repeat at 20gm and 40gm if you aren’t getting the results you want.

          I just use lye, as it’s about 1000 times stronger. Even 10gm of lye in a liter gives you 13.4 pH, which does the job fine with a 40 second dip. That’s a 0.25 Molar solution for all you chemistry class fans, and is still 10 times stronger than you can do with a whole handful of washing soda.

            1. It gets better. I ran off a batch using washing soda and a basic recipe that used inexpensive ingredients. Click on my name to see the results. I want to test things a bit further, but I have to go get some more sea salt.

              Washing soda does work, but it will probably never give you the strength of flavor or deep color that lye does. I would conditionally recommend 40gm of washing soda in 1 liter of warm water and a 90 second dip. Bake at 450 for 11 min. A 40gm solution gives a pH just over 12.

              1. Long slow whistle. Drew, I love the way you think and explore options. Especially the lower-cost version since so many home bakers are turned off or intimidated by the seeming need for fancy ingredients or equipment. I so appreciate you sharing your very well-researched results with us!

                1. I updated that post, using a final batch with 75gm of washing soda in the mix. The pretzel flavor is better, but there is a noticeable off taste that I’d call chalky or metallic. It is much stronger in the 90 second dip pretzel than in the 60 second dip pretzel. So there is a limit, which I think would be around 40-50gm/liter.

                  And this completes my pretzel research project. I hope your readers give these recipes a try.

                  Sadly, making top quality fancy pretzels is not inexpensive.A 2lb bottle of lye costs $24.11 at Amazon and makes 45 batches. 54¢ per batch. A 20oz jar of barley malt syrup is $11 and makes 11 batches; $1 per batch. You can get it locally for much less. $38 gets you 10lb of KA high gluten flour, enough for 11 batches; $3.46 per batch. beer is up to you but figure $1.60 per batch. Buy your spelt and coarse sea salt locally for much less than Amazon charges. Butter is no longer inexpensive. So a batch of 8 super pretzels probably works out to $1.25 each. So you do it for love, not economics.

                  I can get KABF which is nearly as strong as KA’s high gluten for about $5/5lb bag. So the only “extravagant” expense is the lye, and a jug of that will last you for years. But by all means try the budget approach first with the washing soda, then try it with malt syrup instead of brown sugar, then try it with added spelt. At this point you’re a pretzel junkie, which justifies buying everything else!!

                  If you start making pretzels, you’ll probably also start making bread. So the desire for a big thick baking stone, a big roll of parchment paper, a bench scraper, and a decent digital kitchen scale can be justified there too. And you ask Santa for a powerful stand mixer with attachments. :-)

    4. How long can you keep the dough in the fridge? and can you freeze the dough after the first rise in the fridge?
      Thank you!

      1. Trina, I think that you could refrigerate the dough for a couple of days. I also think you can freeze it. I’d suggest freezing a small amount of the dough from your first batch and then, try finishing a couple of pretzels after thawing, to see if YOU are happy with the results. Larry

      2. In my experience the dough will start to fade after about 2 days. However, if you make your ropes and shape your pretzels, they can be stored, unbaked, in an airtight container for some time. The less air in the container the better, to limit freezer burn. They’ll need about 30 minutes to thaw, and after about an hour will begin to rise again (assuming they were in the fridge for less time than needed for total fermentation [ about 16 hours ] )

    5. So, lye is how they do it? I figured it was like bagels, where you “boil” them first to get that nice golden brown-y outside. I’ll probably use the baking soda, too. Another wimp. But fresh soft pretzels…heaven.

      What’s the interior like on these. It actually sounds like it might also make a very tasty sandwich bread — all the good ingredients.

      1. Hey ruthie, join the wimps club, there are plenty of us here! I haven’t made these myself yet, but our testers say the interior is dense and properly chewy and slightly yeasty, a little more intense than your typical sandwich bread, but yes, with all the right ingredients. Think of it as sandwich bread squared. And if you look beneath the recipe, one of the variations is for pretzel rolls, which are, as you surmised, divine with sandwich fixins. (We especially encourage you to consider this lovely little sandwich, devised with pretzel rolls in mind.) And, as always, kindly let us know what you think!

        1. May I say “tube pans”? This sounds like something that would be sturdy enough and taste great for those little sandwiches. As a woman who has too many tube pans, I am always looking for bread recipes to use in them, but they can’t be wimpy breads. I never got past the little sandwiches my mom used to make when the church ladies came over for tea. ;)

          I’m going to try it.

    6. Can’t wait to try this recipe! Been making my own for a while (and homemade mustard) using a browning technique of plain baking soda solution plus an egg wash. Was never thrilled with the egg wash so was about to try lye but now going to try it with the treated baking soda.


      1. We’re looking forward to hearing what you think, Mark L. As you can see from our recipe testers’ comments, they were really quite surprised at just how authentic the pretzels turned out. But I’d like hear what you think of them compared to those beauties that you have in your photo. Also curious to learn about your homemade mustard recipe, as I’ve long been seeking one that passes muster….

        1. Finally got a chance to make these and they were fantastic! The dough was an absolute dream to work with. Here’s my mustard recipe, curious to hear what you think:

          3 tbls yellow mustard seeds
          1 tbls brown mustard seeds
          1 tbls mustard powder
          1 tsp brown sugar
          ½ tsp sea salt
          ¼ tsp turmeric
          ¼ tsp garlic powder
          ⅛ tsp paprika
          ¼ cup plus 2 tbls cold tap water
          1 tbls champagne or white wine vinegar

          Grind seeds in spice grinder or blender, mix in remaining ingredients except water and vinegar. Add water and vinegar, whisk to combine. If a hotter mustard is desired add water before vinegar, waiting 1-2 minutes before adding vinegar. Cover and refrigerate for at least 12 hours. Place mixture in a blender and blend until desired consistency, add cold water a tablespoon at a time if mixture is too thick. Taste and adjust seasonings as needed.

      1. Hi Carla, you should be able to use malt powder. I might use a scant tablespoon just to compensate for the lower moisture content.

      2. Make sure it’s deactivated (non-diastatic) malt powder. Barley contains an enzyme called alphaamylase that breaks proteins, including gluten. Great for beer, not so great for bread! Too much malt can turn your bread (or pretzels) into a slop that will not set while baking.

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